Saturday, March 25, 2006

Discus Fish

Data Sheet

Scientific Name: Symphysodon
Family: Cichlidea
Origin: South America (Amazon)
Adult Size: 20-25 cm
Social: Good - see below
Lifespan: 10 years
Tank Level: mid dweller

Minimum Tank Size: 10-15 gallons (for small discus)
Omnivore - fussy eater
Breeding: Egglayer
Care: Medium-Hard
Ideal pH: 6.8-7.5
Temperature: 26 – 30°C (79-86F)
Tank setup:

Smaller Discus seems to favoured plants in the aquarium, where they can hide and rest, but will eat the plants as well.

Males tend to have pointed dorsal and anal fins. Females ones are more rounded. Males tends to have more patterns and less color, while female has more color and less pattern. Finally, males tend to be slightly bigger than the females.


The discus is almost circular, or orb shaped with strong lateral compression. It has a small mouthed with a steep rising forehead. The dorsal and anal fins are rounded with a long base. The caudal fin is indented and the ventral fins are sabre-shaped. Although body patterns varies, most are showily coloured in shades of green, red, brown, and blue. The height and length of the grown fish are both about 20–25 cm (8–10 in).


There are many articles on the care of discus. Discus are among the most difficult fish to keep in prime health. It appears that these fish are finicky, and they can die very easily.

Some appropriate water conditions:

  • 78-88º F (26-31º C). Most people keep their discus at about 85º F (29º C). Due to these high temperature, care should be taken when choosing tankmates for discus.
  • pH and general hardness should be low for general discus keeping. The water should be very soft and acidic, with a pH of 6.0-6.8
  • Pollution WILL NOT BE TOLERATED. In terms of tank conditions, this is really the big 'secret' to keeping discus healthy. B
  • Ammonia and Nitrites should be kept at 0ppm at all times. Nitrates should also be kept as low as possible.
  • Weekly water changes are important, except in the case of a very heavily planted tank with high nitrogen compound grounding capacity and a very small biological load. Water changes DAILY are highly recommended.

Mixing with other fishes:

The discus are shy and peaceful aquarium inhabitants. They are sensitive to stress and disturbance or lack of protection. The best cohabitants may be angelfish (although many aquarists claim that keeping them together with angelfish will introduce parasites and/or diseases in them) and small fish like tetras. The Uaru is another preferred tank-mate of the discus.

However, small fish may be intimidated by the big discus fish or even eaten. Small fish like neon tetras are often found in the gut of wild discus, so they might not be the ideal cohabitants, but the ideal food.


Most discus are often extremely cautious about adapting to new foods; it's not unusual for them to go for weeks without food before accepting a new type of food. Whenever you buy discus, ALWAYS ASK WHAT THE FISH ARE EATING. After starving for a month discus will almost always accept a new food, but if you're buying younger fish, that can also stunt growth. Find out what sort of food the fish are accustomed to so you can get them eating in their new home right away. If you would prefer to feed them something else, you can then take your time to switch them over to the new food by mixing a little of it into their old food. One popular high-protein food often given to discus to promote good coloration and quick growth is beefheart. However, over feeding mammal protein over the long term can cause health complications, and a much better choice, which more people are moving toward today, is Krill, a shrimp-like crustacean.

Allow them about 3 mins to eat, then remove all uneaten food and detritus daily as this will quick form ammonia and built up on nitrates in the water.


When well cared for and given a very varied diet these fish become sexually mature after about two to three years and will breed in the tank where they are being kept. They should never be transferred to a special breeding tank. A pair will separate themselves, usually during the spring, and chase the other fish as far as possible into a corner. Discus are typical open breeders with a quiet form of courtship and mating. The eggs are laid on rocks, more rarely on leaves, and they hatch in about 50 hours. Both parents tend the young, helping to "chew" them out of the egg membrane and transferring them to leaves. There they remain suspended by short filaments, are fanned by both the adults and finally start to swim after a further two to three days.

In contrast to nearly all other fish the young feed not only on very tiny animals but also, and mainly, on a skin secretion produced by the parents This is produced by large one celled skin glands, mainly in the region of the back; these glands increase in number during the period of brood protection. The adults, and particularly the female, thus fulfill the function of a lactating cow. The fry do not in fact swim free very much, but attach themselves to the adults and suck at their skin. The parents alternate their duties at this time. The young will concentrate on one parent until a flip of its tail shakes them off and sends them to the other partner. Gradually, however, the young start to taken an increasing amount of small food from the open water, so they must be supplied with brine shrimp nauplii and rotifers. The young have a typical elongated fish shape, but soon become more rounded. They grow rather rapidly and by three months they are the typical Discus shape. The juvenile coloration changes to the definitive pattern after eight to nine months. Finally, it should be noted that Discus frequently eat their own eggs.


  • Flagellates (most common ailment of discus):
    When your discus fish
    • is not eating or
    • has a dull color or
    • is not growing or
    • excreates white faeces,

    it probably has Flagellates (internal worms). To treat it, use Metronidazole B.P. Tablets - 200mg, - 2 tablets for 50 gallons water. Change water and repeat the treatment everyday for 5 days. When white faeces disappeared and see black faeces, internal parasites cleared.

Photo Galley

Got a photo? Contact me.

Links to other awesome Discus sites:

1. - Awesome range of discus fish for sale! Includes photo galley + customer's discus photo g
2. - Wow! beautiful range of discus fish for sale.
3. - Another great site to purchase discus fish.

References Cited:

1. Discus (fish) [Online], Available
2. Caring for your discus fish [Online], Available
3. Symphysodon Aequifasciata [Online], Available
4. How to keep discus [Online], Available
5. Sexing Discus Fish [Online], Available
6. Discus worm [Online], Available
7. Symphysodon aequifasciatus
Blue discus [Online], Available

Wednesday, March 22, 2006


Data Sheet

Dwarf Gourami

Scientific Name: Trichogaster trichopterus,
Other Names: Three Spot Gourami, Opaline Gourami, Cosby Gourami, Golden Gourami, Silver Gourami, Honey Gourami, Dwarf Gourami
Family: Belontiidae
Origin: South East Asia
Adult Size: 4.3 inches (11 cm)
Social: Peaceful with larger or same size fish. But may eat smaller fish.
Lifespan: 4 years
Tank Level: Top, middle dweller

Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons
Omnivore - Eats most food
Breeding: Egg Layer - bubble nest builder
Care: Easy
Ideal pH: 6.8-7.5
Temperature: 72-79 F (22-26 C)

Pink Kissing Gourami

Tank setup:

Planted tank with some thick plants, and gentle circulation

The dorsal fin is long and pointed in males; in females it is shorter and rounded.

Flame Dwarf Gourami

Neon Dwarf Gourami

Gold Gourami


Many gouramies have an elongated ray at the front of their pelvic fins. Many species show parental care. The three spot Gourami sports but two spots; one in the center of the body, and a second at the caudal pentacle (beginning of the tail). The third spot is actually the eye. Selective breeding has produced other types of gouramis, and some species lack the spots.

Gouramis are among those fish who possess a labryinth organ, which allows them to breath air directly. This means that they can survive well in oxygen poor waters but must be able breathe directly from the surface.


Hailing from the tropical waters of the Far East, Blue Gouramis are one of the most hardy of the Gourami family. Their preference is for thickly vegetated waters of any type. They can be found in ditches, canals, ponds, swamps, rivers, and lakes. Blue Gouramis tolerate a wide range of temperatures and are not demanding in terms of water conditions. However, they prefer soft, slightly acidic water when in breeding season.

Mixing with other fishes:

In the home aquarium they may be housed with a variety of fish, although it's usually best to keep them with fish of similar size. Generally only one male should be kept per tank, as males are highly territorial. However if the tank is large enough, or there are enough other fish present, this natural tendency will be diminished.


These are exceptionally easy fish to feed, as they will accept virtually any foods, from flake to freeze-dried, to live foods. They will consume hydra voraciously, and are prized for their ability to eliminate this pest from the home aquarium.


Sexes are primarily differentiated by the shape of the dorsal fin, which is long and pointed in males, compared to the females' shorter rounded dorsal. Females that are prepared for spawning will show a pronounced swelling in the breast area, while the male will have a far more slender girth. Both sexes display a much deeper blue color during breeding periods.

Because the male can be rather aggressive during spawning, the aquarium habitat should provide ample places for the female to take refuge. Failure to do so can result in injury to the female.

Spawning begins with the building of the bubble nest by the male, which usually occurs early in the day. After a suitable nest has been prepared, the male will attempt to entice the female under it by swimming back and forth, flaring his fins and raising his tail. The female signals her readiness by biting his back; he responds by repeatedly brushing his back against her belly before taking her into a spawning embrace. During spawning the male wraps his body tightly around the female, turning her on her side or back so the eggs will rise unimpeded to the surface. This close embrace is also important because it brings the reproductive products as close together as possible. Because sperm cells survive only a matter of minutes in the water, the timing of their release and proximity to the eggs is critical.

Just before the sperm are released, the pair may be observed quivering - a sure sign that spawning is near completion. The eggs are released immediately thereafter, and are fertilized by the time they reach the bubble nest. The pair may repeat the process a number of times over the course of several hours. It is not unusual for the number of eggs produced to reach into the thousands.

Once spawning is complete, the female's involvement is over, and she should be removed to prevent her from being attacked by the male. From this point forward until they hatch, the male will tend the eggs, carefully rearranging them and returning any errant eggs back to the nest. Spitting streams of water is an interesting phenomenon often seen at this time in breeding males. It is believed the purpose of this behavior is to keep the eggs positioned within the bubble nest.

The eggs hatch in approximately 30 hours. The fry should be fed infusoria and nauplii. Water changes should be frequent as the fry grow, especially during the third week, which is when the labyrinth organ develops.


  • Dwarf Gourami - has diagonal turquoise blue stripes on their reddish orange body. The males are larger and more colorful than the females.
  • Honey Gourami - Males have beautiful bright orange-yellow color. The females are plain, have slightly shaded brownish orange body with a silvery fluorescent glow.
  • Giant Gourami - can grow up to 70 cm (28") long. It is highly territorial.
  • Pearl Gourami - The base color is a Reddish Brown that is almost completely covered by a mixture of White Pearly dots that give the look of an Opalescent sheen. An intermittent dark Brown line extends down the body sides from the nose through the eyes to the start of the tail fin where it blooms into a round blotch.
  • Kissing Gourami - get their name from large lips which they pucker and then lock with another Kissing Gourami. They have a long oval shaped body with a rose colouring and broad colourless dorsal and anal fins. They do not have the long thread-like pelvic fins that are typical of other gouramis. They grow to a much larger size than most gouramis and can grow to 12 inches in the wild.
  • Moonlight Gourami - is silvery colored with a slightly greenish hue that is not unlike the soft glow of moonlight. The concave slope of the head in the Moonlight Gourami distinguishes it from other Gourami species.

Photo Galley

Got a photo? Contact me.

Pearl Gourami

Golden Gourami

Blue Gourami

Three spot Gourami

Kissing Gourami

Giant Gourami

Links to other awesome Gourami sites:

1. - an excellent photo galley.
2. - a singaporean fish farm where they breed gourami for export.

References Cited:

1. Blue Gourami, [Online], Available
2. David Goodwin (2001), The Aquarium Fish Handbook, D & S books, England.
3. Pearl Gourami Profile [Online], Available
4. Gourami [Online], Available
5. William Burg (??) Breeding Gourami, Online, Available
6. Kissing Gourami Information, [Online], Available
7. Moonlight Gourami, [Online], Available

Monday, March 20, 2006

Red-Eared Terrapin / Red-Eared Slider

Data Sheet

Laying Eggs

Scientific Name: Trachemys scripta elegans
Family: Emydidae
Origin: USA, Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Brazil, Venezuela
Adult Size: 28 cm (8-9" inches)
Social: They will tolerate other small animals in their habitat, but will quickly dive underwater when approached by potential predators, making them difficult to catch.
Lifespan: 25 years - 40 years
Tank Setup: Requires freshwater and land.

Minimum Tank Size: A 12 x 6 x 6 inches (30 x 15 x 15 cm) tank would be suitable for a single small terrapins up to 10 cm (4 inches) shell length.
Diet: Omnivore
Breeding: Egg Layer
Care: Easy-Medium
Ideal pH: 6.5-7.5
Temperature: 20 - 26 C (69 - 78 F)
Tank setup:

Place the terrapin in a tank with shallow water, some logs or rock so that it can sun itself.

Males have longer front claws and a longer, thicker tail. Males also tend to have a concave ventral shell as compared to that of females. When full grown, females are also significantly larger than males.


This is a sleek turtle, with webbed feet and a red stripe down each side of the head. The carapace (upper shell) is patterned with yellow and green markings.

The shells of juveniles are bright green, and this darkens with age. The face shows a distinctive arrangement of pale yellow stripes, and red markings behind the ear.


The red-eared terrapin inhabits still or slow flowing water with thick underwater vegetation. Primarily active during the day, it likes to haul out onto land, roots or floating logs to soak up the sun's heat.

Red-eared terrapin are amphibious, spending time in water as well as on land. Water depth needs to be approximately the width of the shell for juveniles but should be no deeper than 5 cms for hatchlings. Therefore, the tank should ideally contains some logs or rock so that it can sun itself.


Red-eared sliders are omnivores, feeding on vegetation, insects, small fish, frogs and tadpoles. They eat more tadpoles fish and insects when young, switching to more plants as they age. "Turtle foods" comprising of dried river shrimps as sold in pet shops can be added as a source of roughage.


The male has very long front claws and the courtship behaviour involves him swimming in front of the female and tickling her chin. The female usually lays eggs once a year, sometimes twice.

The clutch averages about 15 eggs but can be anything from 2-22 eggs. The female terrapin excavates a pit where she lays the eggs at intervals of three to ten minutes. She then covers the pit and leaves them to develop. Hatching occurs after about three months, or less if conditions are warmer.

For more information on breeding this terrapin, I recommend reading reference #5 below.


Red-Eared Terrapins have a strong bite resulting in injuries that should be seen by medical staff as soon as possible as they may carry some diseases. This bite is able to inflict serious injury, larger adults being able to crush bone.


1. Soft shell/ lumpy shell: lack of calcium or lack of Vitamin D 3 which promotes healthy bone and shell growth.

2. Swollen/ closed eyes: this can lead to loss of vision and an inability to feed. It can be caused by infection, lack of vitamin A, incorrect feedingor incorrect environmental conditions.

3. Shields: terrapin shields or scutes covering the shell do not grow, so every few months you may find they "moult". The new shield underneath will be brightly coloured. Check that the terrapin is feeding and behaving normally. However, if there is any sign of blood, or the terrapin appears listless or off its food, seek advice from your veterinary surgeon immediately.

Photo Galley

Got a photo? Contact me.

Photo courtesy of Linda

Photo courtesy of Linda

Links to other awesome Red-Ear Terrapin sites:

1. awesome pics for reptiles, including terrapins.
2. - turtles of Southeast Asia showcase information about various turtles.
3. - includes images on various turtles.
4 - a place where you can buy turtles as pets.

References Cited:

1. Red-Eared Terrapin [Online], Available,
2. Red-eared Slider [Online], Available
3. Red-eared Terrapin [Online], Available
4. Red-eared Terrapin - Trachemys scripta elegans [Online], Available
5. Breeding the Red Eared Terrapin, [Online], Available,

Sunday, March 19, 2006

Gold Fish

Data Sheet

Scientific Name: Carassius auratus
Other Names: gold fish
Family: Cyprinidae
Adult Size:23 inches (59 cm)
Social:Generally Friendly, great with other non-aggressive fish.
Lifespan:> 20 years
Tank Level: Mid-dweller

Minimum Tank Size:10 gallons (for small goldfish)
40 gallons for bigger ones.
Omnivore. See below in Feeding section.
Breeding:Egg layer
Ideal pH: 6.0-8.0
Ideal Temperature: 68 to 75 °F (20 to 23 °C).
Tank setup:

Planted tank with some board leave plants, and gentle circulation # see Habitat/Care below:
Males develop breeding tubercles (white pimples) on the gill covers and on the leading edge of the pectoral fins during the breeding season.

Females develop a deeper body as they fill with roe (eggs), and have a larger vent (just before the anal fin) than the males during the breeding season.

Common Goldfish

blue pom-poms

Orange Ryukin

Sarsa Comet



Bubble Eye

Black Moor

Telescope Eye




GOLDFISH is a freshwater fish, genus Carassius, of the family Cyprinidae, popular in aquariums and ponds. Native to China, it was first domesticated centuries ago from the wild form, an olive-colored carplike fish up to 16 in. (40 cm) long. It reverts to this type when it escapes from domestication and has been known to hybridize with the carp . Breeders have developed bizarre varieties with fan, fringe, or veil tails and sometimes with double or triple fins. Some have bulging "telescope" eyes. For a description of the different variety, please refer to variants below:


Goldfish natively live in ponds, and other slow or still moving bodies of water in depths up to 20 m (65 ft). Their native climate is subtropical and they live in freshwater with a 6.0–8.0 pH, a water hardness of 5.0–19.0 dGH, and a temperature range of 40 to 106 °F (4 to 41 °C) although they will not survive long at the higher temperatures. Indeed, they are considered ill-suited even to live in a heated tropical fish tank, as they are used to the greater amount of oxygen in unheated tanks also the heat burns them.

In the wild, the diet consists of crustaceans, insects, and plant matter.

While it is true that goldfish can survive in a fairly wide temperature range, the optimal range for indoor fish is 68 to 75 °F (20 to 23 °C). Pet goldfish, as with many other fish, will usually eat more food than it needs if given, which can lead to a fatal intestinal blockage. They are omnivorous and do best with a wide variety of fresh vegetables and fruit to supplement a flake or pellet diet staple.

Sudden changes in water temperature can be fatal to any fish, including the goldfish. When transferring a store-bought goldfish to a pond or a tank, the temperature in the storage container should be equalized by leaving it in the destination container for at least 20 minutes before releasing the goldfish. In addition, some temperature changes might simply be too great for even the hardy goldfish to adjust to. For example, buying a goldfish in a store, where the water might be 70 °F (approximately 21 °C), and hoping to release it into your garden pond at 40 °F (4 °C) will probably result in the death of the goldfish, even if you use the slow immersion method just described. A goldfish will need a lot more time, perhaps days or weeks, to adjust to such a different temperature.

Because the goldfish likes to eat live plants, keeping it with plants in an aquarium can be quite a problem. Only a few of the aquarium plant species can survive in a tank with goldfishes, for example Cryptocoryne and Anubias species, but they require special attention so that they are not uprooted.


During the Tang Dynasty, it was popular for Chinese ponds to have carps. As the result of a genetic mutation one of these carp displayed "gold" (actually yellowish orange) rather than silver coloration. This mutation is associated with a dominant gene which also makes the breeding of this trait rather easy. The gold-coloured strain became popular for keeping in containers. Afterwards, the people began to breed the gold variety instead of the silver, and began to keep them into small containers to watch.

As bred in captivity, more mutations occurred producing more colours and fancy goldfish appeared. According to old books, the occurrence of other colours were first recorded in AD 1276. In the Ming Dynasty it was recorded the first occurrence of fancy tailed goldfish. In AD 1502, goldfish were introduced to Japan, where it had been developed the Ryukin and Tosakin varieties.

In AD 1611, Goldfish were introduced to Portugal, the starting point from which they were introduced to other parts of Europe. The goldfish was finally introduced to North America in AD 1874.

Mixing with other fishes:

Most goldfish are generally social, able to be kept with a variety of other fish without complication. They enjoy swimming and playing in groups, and while occasional individuals can become aggressive, the overall breed is friendly. They can become quite tame eating from hands and swimming frantically towards the owner in the hope of food.


Like most fish, goldfish are opportunistic feeders, meaning they will eat whenever food is available, whether they are hungry or not. This habit can be fatal. Their digestive tract can become so jammed with food that the intestines tear open, killing the fish. Also, an excess of food means more waste and feces, which pollute the tank. Goldfish should only be fed as much food as they can consume in 3 to 4 minutes, and no more than twice a day.

A good way to tell if your goldfish is being properly fed is to look as their feces. They should be short and chunky, the same color as the food the fish is eating. Long strings of waste that trail behind the fish as they swim could be a sign of over-feeding.

Care has to be taken when choosing the right food for them, because goldfishes need less protein (which they cannot digest in excess) and more of the easy to digest carbohydrates. However, specialised food for them can be found on the market.


Goldfish, like all cyprinids, are egglayers. They produce adhesive eggs which attach themselves to aquatic vegetation. The eggs hatch within 48-72 hours, releasing fry large enough to be described as appearing like "an eyelash with two eyeballs". Within a week or so, the fry begin to look more like a goldfish in shape, although it can be as much as a year before they take their mature goldfish color, until then they are a metallic brown like their wild forebears. In their first weeks of existence, the fry grow remarkably fast; an adaptation borne of the high risk of getting devoured by the adult goldfish (or other fish and insects) in their environment.

Goldfish can only grow to sexual maturity if given enough water and the right nutrition. However if kept well, they may breed indoors. Breeding usually happens after a significant change in temperature, often in spring. Eggs should then be separated into another tank, as the parents will likely eat any of their young that they happen upon. Dense plants such as Cabomba or Elodea or a spawning mop are used to catch the eggs.

Most goldfish can and will breed if left to themselves, particularly in pond settings. Males chase the females around, bumping and nudging them in order to prompt the females to release her eggs, which the males then fertilize.


Selective breeding over centuries has produced several color variations, some of them far removed from the "golden" color of the originally domesticated fish. There are also different body shapes, fin and eye configurations. Some extreme versions of the goldfish do need to be kept in an aquarium — they are much less hardy than varieties closer to the "wild" original, however more robust variations such as the Shubunkin are more hardy. The main varieties are:

  • Common - Common goldfish are a type of goldfish with no other modifications from their ancestors than their color. Most varieties of fancy goldfish were derived from this simple breed. Common goldfish come in a variety of shades including red, orange/gold, white, black and yellow or 'lemon' goldfish.
  • Black Moor - The Black Moor is a stunningly beautiful fish. They have short, thick bodies with a hump around the shoulder area. They have long fins, and their body is usually colored black, sometimes with red and white spots. The most striking feature of the Black Moor is their eyes, which are large, and grow from the sides of their heads.
  • Bubble Eye - This goldfish is characterized by bubble sacs next to its eyes. As it grows, the eyes become bigger then upturn. It lacks a dorsal fin, and has a double tail.
  • Celestial Eye - When the fry hatch they have normal eyes but over a matter of time these become bigger and then upturn. From above it appears as if they are looking up at you. Because of their limited eyesight they do not compete well for food, and so are best kept with their own kind, or with bubble eyes who have a similar problem.
  • Comet - Comets are characterized by a long, tall, flowing tailfin.
  • Fantail - A typical fantail has paired fins, including anal fins, a single dorsal fin, and a round, pointed body shape. It has a dual-lobed tail
  • Lionhead - has a dorsal contour that curves sharply down to the caudal peduncle. The hood is the dominant feature and the fish should have a nice clean back.
  • Oranda - An Oranda is characterized by a fleshy outgrowth on the top of its head and sides of its face, called a wen.
  • Pearlscale - The fish is short and rounded covered with large metalic scales.
  • Pompom - Pom-poms have fleshy nasal lobes that are greatly enlarged into pom-pom like tufts. The tail and anal fins should be double and separate all the way to the body
  • Ryukin - The most notable feature of this variety is a hump in its back -- generally, the higher or more pronounced the hump is, the better the quality of Ryukin the fish is. Ryukin have more pointed heads than other varieties of goldfish, and are bred to show other such desirable traits as doubled caudal and anal fins
  • Shubunkin - A single-tail goldfish with orange, white, black, red, and blue markings, blue being the most desired
  • Telescope Eye - are characterized by its protruding eyes. The eyes are situated at the end of what is called the eye-stalk.
  • Panda Moor - It is similar to a fantail in shape and comes (like the name suggests) in panda colours, black and white. Like the other Moors it has slightly protruding eyes which stick out on small eye stalks.
  • Veiltail - It has the body shape of a fantail but has extremely long fins, that are very attractive

Photo Galley

Got a photo? Contact me.


Bubble Eye

Short tailed Ryukin

Orange pom pom

Black and white Oradana

Panda Moor


Celestial Eye



Pearl Scale

Pair of Pearl Scale

Links to other awesome GoldFish sites:

1. awesome site for goldfish pics.
2. a great site with a large variety of goldfish for sale
3. a wonderfully informative site about goldfish.
4. another great site with extensive photo galley.
5. contains good information on gold fish.
6. this site sell good quality gold fishes.

References Cited:

1. Goldfish, [Online], Available
2. Sexing Goldfish [Online], Available
3. The Columbia Encyclopedia, sixth edition, GoldFish [Online], Available